PhD Candidate (Structural Engineering)
MSc (Structural and Earthquake Engineering), University at Buffalo - State University of New York
BSc (Civil Engineering), Kabul University, Afghanistan
Room: 4th Floor ICTS Building, Room 401
Phone: +64 3 364 2987
Fax: +64 3 364 2758
Postal Address: Dept of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand
The current State-of-the-Art Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) aims for minimizing traffic disruption, improving safety in the work zone, reducing life cycle costs, improving construction quality, and limiting environmental impacts. ABC can be defined as any method to speed up the construction of bridges. For concrete bridges, the use of precast elements for substructure and superstructure systems can significantly reduce the construction time of a bridge. ABC has already been implemented in regions with low seismicity. However, lessons from past earthquakes have shown critical vulnerability of the precast connections in high seismicity. Thus, application of ABC in high seismicity requires in depth experimental and numerical investigations.
The National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 698 (2011) includes several concepts for the connection of the precast members for ABC. Several types of potential emulative connections are proposed. Emulative solution aims to achieve the traditional cast-in-place behaviour known as plastic hinging at the high demand locations in a column. This type of seismic design has been widely used in cast-in-place practice around the world.
In New Zealand, the project titled “Advanced Bridge Construction and Design” (ABCD), funded by the New Zealand Natural Hazards Platform (NHRP), aims to investigate the seismic performance of emulative and non-emulative cast-in-place connections for ABC substructure systems in seismic regions. The ABCD project is coordinated by Dr. Alessandro Palermo at the University of Canterbury (2011-2015). In the first phase of the research program two of the emulative connections proposed by NCHRP, the grouted duct and member socket connections, were experimentally tested. Four half-scale segmental bridge columns were constructed in a prefabrication yard, and then transported, assembled, instrumented, and tested for quasi-static uni and bi-directional cyclic loading in the lab.
The NCHRP 698 also presents a concept for Highways for LIFE precast bent for seismic regions but was never experimentally tested before. In this bent structure, the precast column to foundation connection is member socket connection, where the column to cap beam connection is grouted duct connection. In the second phase of ABCD program, a half-scale fully precast multi-column bridge substructure similar to concept for Highways for LIFE bent was constructed. Shear keys were provided for the grouted duct connection to emulate the cast-in-place behaviour of the cap beam to column connection. The specimen is designed and detailed to achieve plastic hinging at the base and top of the columns, with no damage to the foundation and cap beam. This type of solution, which uses emulative connections, can be called “ABC High Damage”. This specimen was New Zealand biggest bridge testing so far. The specimen self weight was more than 23 tonnes. It was loaded with an additional 150 tonnes to simulate the weight of the bridge deck it will support. This bent was also intended to serve as a benchmark for a comparison of seismic performance for the next phase of ABCD. In the third phase of the research project, another bent similar to second phase specimen was constructed but using a non-emulative cast-in-place or low damage approach. The locations for potential plastic hinging were replaced by a combination of post-tensioning with the external replaceable dissipaters. This solution was named Dissipative Controlled Rocking (DCR) or hybrid connection, and when combined with ABC concept was called “ABC Low Damage”. The post-tensioning provides self-centering capability for the substructure, while external dissipaters are intended to absorb seismic energy by going through nonlinear deformation. The resultant hysteresis is known as “flag-shaped”. Similar to ABC High Damage, shear keys were provided in the footings and cap beam. However, for ABC Low Damage, the rocking interfaces were armoured with mild steel. Steel shells were used in ends of the columns for the cover confinement to prevent concrete spalling. Several innovative dissipaters that can be used with ABC Low Damage were developed and thoroughly tested. The dissipaters incorporated superior seismic performance as well as features such as cost competitiveness and simple installation and repleacibility were developed at the University of Canterbury. In summary, ABC Low Damage solution was developed and tested to eliminate any type of structural damage to the bent components during a big earthquake.
- M. Mashal, A. Palermo (2014), Experimental Testing of Emulative and Low Damage Connections for Fully Precast Bridge Bents in Regions with High Seismicity, New Zealand Concrete Society Conference, Taupo, New Zealand
- M. Mashal, A. Palermo (2014), Quasi-Static Cyclic Tests of Half-Scale Fully Precast Bridge Bents Incorporating Emulative and Post-Tensioned Low Damage Solutions, Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Istanbul, Turkey
- M. Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo, (2014), Accelerated Bridge Construction and Seismic Low-Damage Technologies For Short-Medium Span Bridges, 37th International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) Symposium, Madrid, Spain
- M. Mashal, A. Palermo (2014), Quasi-Static Cyclic Testing of Half-Scale Fully Precast Bridge Substructure System in High Seismicity, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 2014 Conference, Wellington, New Zealand
- Southwick, W. Batchelar, M. Mashal (2014), Time History Analysis Correlation Between Observed and Predicted Response of Typical Industrial Buildings with Steel Portal Frame and Concrete Tilt Panel Cladding During Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 2014 Conference, Wellington, New Zealand
- W. Batchelar, D. Southwick, M. Mashal, (2014), Time History Analysis for Predicted Response and Seismic Performance of Concrete Tilt Panel Cladding during Long Duration Ground Motions, New Zealand Concrete Society Conference, Taupo, New Zealand
- M.D. Heath, J. Farrell, M. Mashal (2014), Structural Concrete Insulating Panels (SCIPs): An Alternative Construction Technology In Seismic Regions, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 2014 Conference, Wellington, New Zealand
- M. Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo (2014), Experimental Testing of Emulative Connections for Accelerated Bridge Construction in Seismic Areas, 9thAustroads Bridge Conference 2014, Sydney, Australia
- M. Mashal, A. Palermo (2014), Experimental Testing of Emulative Fully Precast Concrete Bridge Bent in Seismic Regions, Australasian Structural Engineering (ASEC) 2014 Conference - Structural Engineering in Australasia – World Standard, Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand
- M. Mashal, A. Palermo (2013), Experimental Investigation into the Seismic Performance of Half-Scale Precast Bridge Bent Incorporating Emulative Solution, 10th United States National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Alaska, United States
- M. Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo (2013), Bi-directional Quasi-Static Cyclic Testing of Emulative Precast Segmental Bridge Piers (E-PSBP) in High Seismic Regions, 7th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (IABMAS), Shanghai, China
- Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo (2013), Accelerated Bridge Construction in Seismic Areas, The New Zealand Concrete Industry Conference 2013, Queenstown, New Zealand
- Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo (2013), Quasi-Static Cyclic Tests of Emulative Precast Segmental Bridge Piers (E-PSBP), New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 2013 Conference, Wellington, New Zealand
- Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo (2013), Investigation of Seismic Performance of Controlled and Low Damage Rocking Systems for Accelerated Bridge Construction of Segmental Bridge Piers, Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways, San Francisco, California, United States
- M. Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo (2013), Accelerated Bridge Construction in Seismic Areas, Bridge, Civil Structures and Marine PIN Conference 2013: Creating a market leading team, Opus International Consultants, Tauranga, New Zealand
- Palermo, M. Mashal (2012), Accelerated Bridge Construction and Seismic Damage Resistant Technology: A New Zealand Challenge, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Bulletin, Vol 45, No. 3, September 2012
- M. Mashal, S. White, A. Palermo (2012), Concepts and Developments for Accelerated Bridge Construction and Dissipative Controlled Rocking, 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal
- M. Mashal, A. Filiatrault (2012), Quantification of Seismic Performance Factors for Buildings Incorporating Three-Dimensional Construction System, 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal
- M. Mashal, A. Filiatrault (2012), Quantification of Seismic Performance Factors for Buildings Incorporating Three-Dimensional Construction System, New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering 2012 Conference, Christchurch
- Palermo, M. Mashal (2011), Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) In Earthquake Prone Areas: International Trends and New Zealand Needs, The NZ Concrete Industry 2011 Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand
- Fulbright Graduate Scholarship to the United States (2009-2011)
- University of Canterbury Doctoral Scholarship (2011-2014)
- 2013 New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE) Research Scholarship Award
- 2013 New Zealand Concrete Society (NZCS) “Concrete Prize”
- 2013 University of Canterbury Research and Innovation Grant "The Stimulator"
- 2014 Australasian Structural Engineering Conference (ASEC) Registration Award
- 2014 New Zealand Concrete Society (NZCS) Travel Bursary
- University of Canterbury Doctoral Scholarship
- Advanced Bridge Construction and Design (ABCD), Natural Hazard Research Platform